One employer’s attempt to bake-in arbitration agreements as a condition of employment left a bad taste in the NLRB’s mouth.[wc_divider style=”dotted” line=”single” margin_top=”” margin_bottom=””]
PJ Cheese, Inc. is part of a Papa John’s Pizza franchise (PJ United, Inc.) that employs more than 3,000 employees in Alabama, Louisiana, Texas, Ohio, Tennessee, Illinois, Missouri, Mississippi, and Virginia.
The employer developed a Dispute Resolution Program (DRP. Pronounced just like it’s spelled.) PJ Cheese intended its DRP to settle employment disputes in arbitration, out of court, and definitely out of the crosshairs of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB).
Oh, the irony.
Instead, PJ Cheese found their Dispute Resolution Program chewed up and spit out. (PJ Cheese, Inc. and James Sullivan).
The language of PJ Cheese’s Dispute Resolution Program explicitly informed applicants and employees that “submission of an application, acceptance of employment or the continuation of employment by an individual shall be deemed to be acceptance of the Dispute Resolution Program.”
And no signature required! How convenient. The NLRB decision referred to this as a “self-executing document”.
PJ Cheese’s DRP – in big, bold capital letters – further expounded:
CONDITION OF YOUR EMPLOYMENT AND IS THE EXCLUSIVE MEANS BY WHICH THOSE PROBLEMS MAY BE RESOLVED.
Ah, now there’s the problem.
NLRB Affirms Administrative Law Court Ruling
Administrative Law Judge William “Wild Bill” Nelson “Rockefeller” Cates found the language of the DRP to quash workers’ ability to pursue class or collective judicial action allowed under Section 7 of the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA). An arbitration policy like PJ Cheese’s DRP also violated the NLRA by causing workers to believe they are prohibited from filing unfair labor practice charges with the NLRB.
The DRP tried to push workers to settle in arbitration claims such as:
- Breach of any contract
- Wrongful termination
- Sexual harassment
- “Whistleblower” claims
PJ Cheese’s DRP flew too close to the sun, and its cheesy wings melted into gooey defeat when the NLRB affirmed with the judge’s original decision. As a result of the decision, PJ Cheese must:
- Cease and desist from maintaining a mandatory arbitration agreement that bars employees from filing charges with the NLRB.
- Rescind the unlawful arbitration agreement or revise it in all of its forms to make clear to employees that the arbitration agreement does not constitute a waiver of their right to take joint, class, or collective actions against their employer or file charges with the NLRB.
- Notify all current and former employees who were required to sign the unlawful arbitration agreement that it has been rescinded or revised and, if revised, provide them a copy of the revised agreement.
- Post copies of a Notice to Employees that disclose employees’ rights to not be subject to binding arbitration agreements in lieu of the Section 7 and Section 8 rights under the NLRA.
What the NLRB Ruling on Mandatory Arbitration Means for Employers
Long story short: any mandatory arbitration policy that contains provisions unlawfully prohibiting employees from engaging in protected concerted activities and that leads employees reasonably to believe they are prohibited from filing charges with the NLRB will not stand.
Under federal law, employees have the right to act together with other employees for mutual benefit and protection and to file claims with the NLRB. Therefore, employers in the U.S. cannot maintain nor can they enforce a mandatory and binding arbitration agreement that requires employees, as a condition of employment, to waive the right to maintain class or collective actions in all forums, whether in arbitration or in court.
Have your legal team review your employee arbitration process to ensure it doesn’t run afoul of the NLRA.[wc_divider style=”solid” line=”single” margin_top=”” margin_bottom=””]
The NLRB found that an employer violated Section 7 of the NLRA when it fired an employee for discussing job security with a co-worker.[wc_divider style=”dotted” line=”single” margin_top=”” margin_bottom=””]
A vending-machine route driver left work early one Friday without notifying management, which is a violation of company policy. That weekend, she noticed a local ‘help wanted’ ad for a vending-machine route driver. She assumed it was her company that had placed the ad and that she was going to be fired.
When she returned to work the following Monday, she and another route driver discussed the ad. She asked her co-worker if he thought the ad meant their company was going to fire someone, but the co-worker thought she was implying he was going to be fired. The second driver went to the owners of the company and expressed his concern about losing his job.
The owner assured him that he would not be fired and asked why he was worried. The other route driver mentioned his conversation about the ‘help wanted’ ad. The company eventually fired the first driver – the one who ducked out of work on Friday – for gossiping and telling other employees they were going to be fired.
The NLRB Steps In
In a 2-1 majority ruling, the NLRB found that the driver’s termination violated the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) because discussion of job security concerns with her co-worker were “inherently concerted,” and therefore considered protected concerted activity, even though there wasn’t any evidence that they were “engaged in with the express object of inducing group action.”
Conversations among employees are generally protected when they consider group action. However, the contemplation of group action is not required when the conversation is “inherently concerted.” Since job security discussions, like wages, are a vital conditions of employment, the NLRB held that they are inherently concerted.
The company was ordered to reinstate the driver with full back pay.[wc_box color=”danger” text_align=”center”]
Protected Concerted Activity and Section 7 of the NLRA
Section 7 of the NLRA protects employees who engage in concerted activity for the purpose of mutual aid or protection. Section 8 of that Act makes it unlawful for an employer to “interfere with, restrain, or coerce” an employee for engaging in such activity.
What Does This Mean For Employers?
Determining whether employee activity is protected under the NLRA ultimately depends on the specific facts of each case. However, it is clear from recent NLRB rulings that taking corrective action based on work-related conversations among employees can lead to trouble with the NLRB.[wc_divider style=”solid” line=”single” margin_top=”” margin_bottom=””]
It’s a presidential election year in America, and political discussions in the workplace can really make the water cooler steam. As an employer, you undoubtedly want your employees to get along and to get their work done, and you certainly don’t want to be accused of violating your employees’ First Amendment rights.
While there are facets of employee communication that are protected – the right of concerted activity, for example, which the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) is quick to defend – the First Amendment, does not guarantee protection in a private employment environment, and that goes for offering political opinions while on the clock.
In fact, the First Amendment to the Bill of Rights is really only about limiting the laws that the federal government can make.
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
Consider the unhappy case of John Griffin, Jr., a radiology technician formerly employed by Speare Memorial Hospital in New Hampshire. In 2009, after President Obama’s inauguration, Griffin made some comments while on duty in the presence of a hospital patient expressing, let’s say, a lack of confidence in the new administration. Specifically, he mentioned that he was stockpiling weapons and food.
News of these comments soon made their way to his supervisor, and Griffin was terminated for misconduct. After being denied unemployment benefits, he literally made a federal case out of his situation, alleging violations of his rights under the First, Fifth, and Fourteenth Amendments. The U.S. District Court of New Hampshire found that those provisions impose limitations on the conduct of federal agents and state actors, not private citizens.
Connecticut is an exception, however. The state’s employment regulation extends First Amendment protections to private employees so long as the employee activity doesn’t interfere with the employee’s job performance or the working relationship between the employee and the employer.
Public employees also are treated differently. In Ricciuti v. Town of Madison, another U.S. District Court stated that a government employee who brings a First Amendment retaliation claim must show evidence of protected First Amendment activity and subsequent adverse employment action. The ruling noted, however, that:
Not everything public employees say in the workplace constitutes protected speech. Were that the case, government offices would soon cease to function.
In Ricciuti, the U.S. District Court cited the Supreme Court’s decision in Garcetti v. Ceballos, which determined that:
Public employees do not surrender all their First Amendment rights by reason of their employment…a citizen who works for the government is nonetheless a citizen…The First Amendment limits the ability of a public employer to leverage the employment relationship to restrict, incidentally or intentionally, the liberties employees enjoy in their capacities as private citizens…the First Amendment protects a public employee’s right, in certain circumstances, to speak as a citizen addressing matters of public concern.